in

Uno studio sulle estinzioni di massa nei tempi antichi mostra che i dinosauri conquistarono la terra in mezzo al ghiaccio, non al calore

Dinosauro teropode piumato

Con un flusso di lava in lontananza, un dinosauro teropode dalle piume primitive rapisce una vittima di mammifero durante un inverno vulcanico nevoso causato da massicce eruzioni durante l’evento di estinzione del Triassico-Giurassico. Un nuovo studio afferma che i dinosauri sono sopravvissuti perché si erano già adattati alle condizioni di gelo alle alte latitudini. Credito: dipinto di Larry Felder

Prospera in una serie di improvvisi brividi globali che hanno ucciso i concorrenti

Molti di noi hanno familiarità con la teoria popolare di come i dinosauri morirono 66 milioni di anni fa: nella violenta collisione della Terra con un meteorite, seguita da un inverno globale causato da polvere e detriti che soffocarono l’atmosfera. Ma c’è stata un’estinzione precedente molto più misteriosa e meno discussa: quella di 202 milioni di anni fa, che spazzò via i grandi rettili che avevano governato il pianeta fino ad allora, e apparentemente aprì la strada alla conquista dei dinosauri. Che cosa provoca il cosiddetto[{” attribute=””>Triassic–

The telltale indicators are dinosaur footprints along with odd rock fragments that only could have been deposited by ice. The authors of the study explain that during the extinction, cold snaps already happening at the poles spread to lower latitudes, killing off the cold-blooded reptiles. Dinosaurs, which had already adapted, survived the evolutionary bottleneck and spread out. The rest is ancient history.

“Dinosaurs were there during the Triassic under the radar all the time,” said Paul Olsen, a geologist at

Pangaea Supercontinent 202 Million Years Ago

The supercontinent of Pangaea 202 million years ago, shortly before the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction. Evidence of early dinosaurs has been found in the indicated areas; most species were confined to the high latitudes, and those few nearer the tropics tended to be smaller. Red area at the top is the Junggar Basin, now in northwest China. Credit: Olsen et al., Science Advances, 2022

Dinosaurs are thought to have first appeared during the Triassic Period in temperate southerly latitudes about 231 million years ago, when most of the planet’s land was joined together in one giant continent geologists call Pangaea. They made it to the far north by about 214 million years ago. Until the mass extinction at 202 million years, the more expansive tropical and subtropical regions in between were dominated by reptiles including relatives of crocodiles and other fearsome creatures.

During the Triassic, and for most of the Jurassic, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ranged at or above 2,000 parts per million—five times today’s levels—so temperatures must have been intense. There is no evidence of polar ice caps then, and excavations have shown that deciduous forests grew in polar regions. However, some climate models suggest that the high latitudes were chilly some of the time; even with all that CO2, they would have received little sunlight much of the year, and temperatures would decline at least seasonally. But until now, no one has produced any physical evidence that they froze.

At the end of the Triassic, a geologically brief period of perhaps a million years saw the extinction of more than three-quarters of all terrestrial and marine species on the planet, including shelled creatures, corals and all sizable reptiles. Some animals living in burrows, such as turtles, made it through, as did a few early mammals. It is unclear exactly what happened, but many scientists connect it to a series of massive volcanic eruptions that could have lasted hundreds of years at a stretch. At this time, Pangaea started to split apart, opening what is now the Atlantic Ocean, and separating what are now the Americas from Europe, Africa and Asia. Among other things, the eruptions would have caused atmospheric carbon dioxide to skyrocket beyond its already high levels, causing deadly temperatures spikes on land, and turning ocean waters too

Junggar Basin Shale Cliff

A shale cliff in the Junggar Basin in northwest China, where scientists found ice-rafted pebbles amid otherwise fine-grained sediments. Credit: Paul Olsen/Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

The authors of the new study cite a third factor: During the eruptions’ fiercest phases, they would have belched sulfur aerosols that deflected so much sunlight, they caused repeated global volcanic winters that overpowered high greenhouse-gas levels. These winters might have lasted a decade or more; even the tropics may have seen sustained freezing conditions. This killed uninsulated reptiles, but cold-adapted, insulated dinosaurs were able to hang on, say the scientists.

The researchers’ evidence: fine-grained sandstone and siltstone formations left by sediments in shallow ancient lake bottoms in the Junggar Basin. The sediments formed 206 million years ago during the Late Triassic, through the mass extinction and beyond. At that time, before landmasses rearranged themselves, the basin lay at about 71 degrees north, well above the Arctic Circle. Footprints found by the authors and others show that dinosaurs were present along shorelines. Meanwhile, in the lakes themselves, the researchers found abundant pebbles up to about 1.5 centimeters across within the normally fine sediments. Far from any apparent shoreline, the pebbles had no business being there. The only plausible explanation for their presence: they were ice-rafted debris (IRD).

Briefly, IRD is created when ice forms against a coastal landmass and incorporates bits of underlying rock. At some point, the ice becomes unmoored and drifts away into the adjoining water body. When it melts, the rocks drop to the bottom, mixing with normal fine sediments. Geologists have extensively studied ancient IRD in the oceans, where it is delivered by glacial icebergs, but rarely in lake beds; the Junggar Basin discovery adds to the scant record. The authors say the pebbles were likely picked up during winter, when lake waters froze along pebbly shorelines. When warm weather returned, chunks of that ice floated off with samples of the pebbles in tow, and later dropped them.

“This shows that these areas froze regularly, and the dinosaurs did just fine,” said study co-author Dennis Kent, a geologist at Lamont-Doherty.

How did they do it? Evidence has been building since the 1990s that many if not all non-avian dinosaurs including tyrannosaurs had primitive feathers. If not for flight, some coverings could have used for mating display purposes, but the researchers say their main purpose was insulation. There is also good evidence that, unlike the cold-blooded reptiles, many dinosaurs possessed warm-blooded, high-metabolism systems. Both qualities would have helped dinosaurs in chilly conditions.

“Severe wintery episodes during volcanic eruptions may have brought freezing temperatures to the tropics, which is where many of the extinctions of big, naked, unfeathered vertebrates seem to have occurred,” said Kent. “Whereas our fine feathered friends acclimated to colder temperatures in higher latitudes did OK.”

The findings defy the conventional imagery of dinosaurs, but some prominent specialists say they are convinced. “There is a stereotype that dinosaurs always lived in lush tropical jungles, but this new research shows that the higher latitudes would have been freezing and even covered in ice during parts of the year,” said Stephen Brusatte, a professor of paleontology and evolution at the University of Edinburgh. “Dinosaurs living at high latitudes just so happened to already have winter coats [while] Molti dei loro concorrenti del Triassico si estinsero.

Randall Irmis, curatore di paleontologia al Museo di storia naturale dello Utah e specialista in primi dinosauri, è d’accordo. “Questa è la prima prova dettagliata dalle alte paleoaltitudini, la prima prova per gli ultimi 10 milioni di anni del periodo Triassico e la prima prova di condizioni veramente ghiacciate”, ha detto. “La gente è abituata al fatto che questo era un periodo in cui l’intero globo era caldo e umido, ma non era proprio così”.

Secondo Olsen, il prossimo passo per comprendere meglio questo periodo è che più ricercatori cerchino fossili nelle ex aree polari come il bacino di Junggar. “La documentazione sui fossili è molto scarsa e nessuno sta facendo ricerche”, ha detto. “Queste rocce sono grigie e nere e molto più difficili da cercare [for fossils] in questi strati. La maggior parte dei paleontologi è attratta dal tardo Giurassico, che è noto per avere molti grandi scheletri. Il Paleo-Artico è sostanzialmente ignorato”.

Riferimento: “Ghiaccio artico e l’ascesa ecologica dei dinosauri”, di Paul Olsen, Jingeng Sha, Yanan Fang, Clara Chang, Jessica H. Whiteside, Sean Kinney, Hans-Dieter Sues, Dennis Kent, Morgan Schaller e Vivi Vajda, 1 luglio 2022, progressi scientifici.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abo6342

Lo studio è stato co-autore dello studio Jingeng Sha e Yanan Fang dell’Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia di Nanchino; Clara Chang e Sean Kinney dell’Osservatorio terrestre di Lamont-Doherty; Jessica Whiteside dell’Università di Southampton; Hans-Dieter fa causa alla Smithsonian Institution; Morgan Schaller del Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; e Vivi Vajda del Museo Svedese di Storia Naturale.

Il 5 luglio il nuovo esperimento Hadron Collider del CERN scatena cospirazioni del giorno del giudizio: cosa sta succedendo davvero

Sensore vento rover Mars Perseverance danneggiato dai ciottoli